Saturday, June 27, 2020
The assigned quotation comes from Platos Allegory of the Cave. It is a famous passage from the beginning of Book 7 called The Republic. Plato was born and lived in Athens, Greece around the time period of 427-347 BC. Plato was a very well-educated and influential philosopher. He was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle who believed in absolutes. Plato felt that knowledge of archetype, especially The Good, can only be attained through the use of reason- and most people do not do this. Plato also believed that most people make bad decisions based on emotion, misinformation and immediate self-interest since they do not use reason, can be easily manipulated by others such as demagogues. His philosophies include education, interaction and human nature which all are expressed through his choice of metaphors, symbolism and imagery in his allegory. The Allegory of The Cave is a theory that focuses on human perception. Plato believes that education is having the ability to view things in different perspectives and that knowledge is gained through philosophical reasoning and how we interpret situations. Platos allegory describes how he views society and shows how humans are in a state of ignorance and corrupt. Plato also demonstrates how when we perceive what is actual reality, we then cannot think beyond the traps of our own mind because that would mean change and accepting what we believed to be true, was wrong. He implies throughout his allegory as if there are many things out there that we do not know about. Particularly the governments doings. That if we rely on our own perceptions, we will know very little about its existence. I believe he tries to tell society that we are all prisoners of our own senses and how humans are fearful of change and what they do not know. These are the many reasons for the composition of the All egory of The Cave. Plato begins by having Socrates ask Glaucon imagine there being a group of prisoners who have been chained up their entire lives in a cave. The prisoners are chained so that their legs and necks are fixed ahead, forcing them to stare at a wall in front. This is keeping the prisoners from looking around at the cave, at themselves or one another. They are kept there with no sunlight, just darkness. They are facing a wall and unable to move or look around, just able to see what is in front of them. Behind them is a fire, and behind the fire is a wall. Shadows of everyday objects are projected onto the wall in front of them so that is all that they know and are able to see. The prisoners have no knowledge of other life outside of the cave. The prisoners think this is a what a normal life is because it is all they have ever experienced. Reality for them is a puppet show on the wall of the cave which is created by shadows of objects and figures. This is Platos way of explaining how the only way to learn is to go beyond the boundaries set by the law or oneself. The story goes onto tell how one of the prisoners gets broken free of the chains and forced to see the sun which is an analogy of the fire that he could not see behind him. The fire represents enlightenment; recognizing ones ignorance. The light from the fire hurts the prisoners eyes and made him want to go back to what he knew; looking at the wall. From taking a Philosophy class, I looked deeper into Platos Allegory. I find that the other captives reaction of the prisoner returning represents how people are scared of thinking outside of what they have always known or thought to be true. I believe the Socrates are explaining to the students how we can be blinded by what were allowed or just allowing ourselves to see.
Friday, May 29, 2020
Both John Fowles in The Collector and Ian McEwan in Enduring Love use complex symbols and metaphors to expose the theme of obsession. In Enduring Love, the opening events and metaphor of the balloon act as a foreshadowing device for obsession. This is shown by John LoganÃ¢â¬â¢s laudable but obsessive refusal to let go of the rope which drags him further away from safe ground and the sanity that it represents. This idea is also analogous to all obsessive actions which unfold from this Ã¢â¬Ëpinprick on the time mapÃ¢â¬â¢ such as Joe and JedÃ¢â¬â¢s mutual obsession and Jean LoganÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. In Enduring Love, the symbol of balloon is an inanimate object whereas The CollectorÃ¢â¬â¢s main symbol is the butterfly. In The Collector, this symbol is more of a recurrent motif and not something the reader can trace as the beginning of obsession. However, it still acts as the metaphor and pre-figurative device through which the reader can infer M irandaÃ¢â¬â¢s future including her capture and imprisonment. The visual aspect of the butterfly and the concept of pinning it down to spread its wings and then photograph it from every angle for Ã¢â¬Å"scienceÃ¢â¬ definitely finds shocking visual parallels in CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive behaviour, Ã¢â¬ËI took her till I had no more bulbs left.Ã¢â¬â¢The balloon of Enduring Love is also a striking visual metaphor which foreshadows uncontrollable obsession in the book. The author imbues it with a transcendental quality by relating it to the formation of the universe Ã¢â¬Ëthe generation of multiplicity and variety of matter in the universeÃ¢â¬â¢ and cosmology. This scientific authorial voice characterises the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator and suggests the grand implications of the balloon on the narrative. Rose describes this as Ã¢â¬Ëthe colossus at the centre of the field that drew us inÃ¢â¬â¢. The exaggerated size suggests the author is going beyond the balloon as a physical o bject but more like a force of nature or scientific abstraction for obsession which seems to drag the men inexorably towards it. Similarly, the lexicon used by Fowles to describe butterfly catching, for example CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëentomological observations diaryÃ¢â¬â¢ is akin to someone trying to emulate a scientific tone and this creates a similarly distinct narrative voice for Clegg and his related obsession. The Ã¢â¬Ëobservations diaryÃ¢â¬â¢ of Clegg also parallels the capture of butterflies and beautiful women as being of equal importance, dehumanizing Miranda and making his obsession easier to justify. Clegg freely admits that, Ã¢â¬ËSeeing her always made me feel like I was catching a rarity,Ã¢â¬â¢ again juxtaposing Miranda and the butterflies. McEwanÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the balloon as a symbol begins a complex network of ambiguity. The reader is left unsure as to whether LoganÃ¢â¬â¢s hanging onto the rope is truly an obsessive action or one projected into that role by those who selfishly let go. Ironically, JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly rational action of dropping from the balloon sets in motion the events which lead to the central obsession. For the narrator, the balloon episode marks a Ã¢â¬Ëbranching and subdivisionÃ¢â¬â¢ opening up Ã¢â¬Ëpathways of love and hatredÃ¢â¬â¢ which are borne out through the novel. Therefore, in Enduring Love, the events surrounding the balloon act as the catalyst which opens Ã¢â¬ËpathwaysÃ¢â¬â¢ for obsession to propagate. However in The Collector, the obsession has already begun. Instead, Fowles builds a slow awareness of CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s danger and creates tension by his specific obsessive observations, Ã¢â¬Ëvery pale, silky, like burnet cocoonsÃ¢â¬â¢ with the simile again showing the concurrence between Miranda and the butterfly. The symbol of the butterfly juxtaposed with Miranda also explicates the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s title; he is not merely a collector of butterflies but a collector of people as well.The t itle of Enduring Love is not fully understood until far later in the novel. Instead there is a sense of the balloon being a transformational device for McEwan, Ã¢â¬Ëa kind of furnaceÃ¢â¬â¢ out of which Ã¢â¬Ëidentities and fates would buckle into new shapesÃ¢â¬â¢ facilitating the change from normality to obsession. The language of accurate scientific observation is again evident particularly the Ã¢â¬Ëmathematical graceÃ¢â¬â¢ of the situation suggesting the aforementioned fateful inevitability. Similarly, language usually used to describe butterflies in The Collector, Ã¢â¬Ëelusive and sporadicÃ¢â¬â¢ is instead attributed to Miranda. Clegg however, does not realise that the beauty of the butterfly is in the delicate movements of flight when it is truly Ã¢â¬ËelusiveÃ¢â¬â¢ not when captured and scientifically scrutinized (similar to the paradox of Art and Photography). Fowles creates a dichotomy by juxtaposing CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s dull personality with the spontaneity of th e butterfly (Miranda) which represents the balance of their personalities. This juxtaposition also represents the other paradoxes of obsession within the novel including art and science, dangerous and normal obsession, and even the opposition of class.However, before such an exploration, one must first trace the growth and beginning of obsession. The opening of Enduring Love including the metaphor of the balloon is formative in the creation of obsession. McEwan acknowledges this, distinguishing between the Ã¢â¬Ëlarge-scale eventsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the balloon and the Ã¢â¬Ësubtler elementsÃ¢â¬â¢ such as RoseÃ¢â¬â¢s first encounter with Jed Parry; A seemingly innocuous moment of sustained eye contact, Ã¢â¬Ë(his) clear blue-grey eyes held mineÃ¢â¬â¢. McEwanÃ¢â¬â¢s retrospective eye intimates that this is the absolute specific moment in which the obsession begins because beyond this Ã¢â¬Ëevery gesture, every word is gathered and piled, fuel for the long winter of his obsession. Ã¢â¬â¢ McEwan is ambiguous as to why this specific moment begins Jeds obsession though it is implied to be a combination of shock from the accident and loneliness. In contrast, Fowles presents Cleggs obsession as born out of a lack of education and the obsessive inadequacy with his background, Ã¢â¬Ë(everybody) seemed to look down on usÃ¢â¬â¢. Interestingly, both the central obsessive characters parents are absent meaning that their obsessive actions are largely unregulated, including those taken by Clegg corresponding to his growing obsession, Ã¢â¬ËI used to see herÃ¢â¬ ¦I stood right behind herÃ¢â¬ ¦watch(ed) her for thirty five minutes.Ã¢â¬â¢ These accurate and specific observations characterise most of the first chapter and the detail with which Fowles describes the events, Ã¢â¬Ëshe sat three seats down and sideways to meÃ¢â¬â¢ points to CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s potential dangerousness. A sense of dramatic tension is created because the reader is left unsure as to how Clegg will Ã¢â¬Å"consummateÃ¢â¬ his obsession. In fact, both authors use structural devices to contrive that their protagonists come into large sums of money, Clegg from the pools and Jed from his inheritance, giving the characters the means to pursue their obsessions unencumbered by the need to work, and thus money. ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession is presented by McEwan in the context of his religious beliefs, Ã¢â¬Ëgod has brought us together in this tragedyÃ¢â¬â¢ and contact with Joe provides fuel both for ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive love but also his need to Ã¢â¬Å"convertÃ¢â¬ Joe. ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive religious fanaticism is evident referring to himself as a Ã¢â¬ËmessengerÃ¢â¬â¢ and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word as Ã¢â¬Ëa giftÃ¢â¬â¢. This early encounter sets the tone for the rest of the novel in which Parry uses religion and denial to create an imaginary obsessive world. His obsession is hard to classify and clearly not conventional love. Joe in a typical scientific fashion labels it Ã¢â¬Ëde Clerambault syndromeÃ¢â¬â¢ as if by classification the condition suddenly becomes explicable. Fowles on the other hand, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t classify CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s condition but leaves the reader to make inference from the text as to his clearly disturbed mental state. This is achieved by the unreliable narrator used by Fowles creating ambiguity as to the true nature of his obsession. Like Parry one suspects his perception of the world is delusional and stilted, Ã¢â¬Ëif more people were like meÃ¢â¬ ¦ the world would be betterÃ¢â¬â¢ though it unclear whether this is a self imposed delusion. Clegg attempts, early on, to suggest his intentions towards Miranda were of the bestÃ¢â¬â¢ but despite this, later in the novel, his feelings towards her are clearly of a sexual nature, Ã¢â¬Ëthe photographsÃ¢â¬ ¦I could take my time with them.Ã¢â¬â¢ Furthermore, his obsessive infatuation seems to be born solely from her physical appearance, Ã¢â¬Ëso beautiful and his idealis tic vision of her, like a mermaidÃ¢â¬â¢.From this conclusion stems one of the main differences in the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ presentation of obsession. Clegg is obsessed with physically controlling Miranda, both in a sexual sense but also as a Ã¢â¬ËCollectorÃ¢â¬â¢ whereas JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession is with winning over JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s mind to God and platonic love. In this way, the presentation of obsession is inverted by both authors; Joe is physically free in the outside world, Ã¢â¬ËOur prison grew largerÃ¢â¬â¢ but captured in his mind, Ã¢â¬Ëmy mental state was very frailÃ¢â¬â¢. On the other hand, Miranda is confined and controlled in this little small roomÃ¢â¬â¢ and yet finds solace in her imagination, Ã¢â¬ËI wrote myself into another worldÃ¢â¬â¢ and is able to transcend her physical capture. It would seem therefore that the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s construction of primary obsession is used to create an obsessive counter-reaction from the victims. In Enduring Love, Joe becomes equal ly obsessed with Jed and McEwan uses the technique of the unreliable narrator and similarities between the two to make their relationship still more ambiguous. The similarity of their names suggests a wilful comparison by McEwan as if under slightly different circumstances they might occupy similar roles. This parallel of Joe and Parry, insinuated by McEwan, is encapsulated when Clarissa remarks Ã¢â¬ËHis writingÃ¢â¬â¢s rather like yoursÃ¢â¬â¢ reinforcing the ambiguity as to whether Jed is even real. JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly irrational response to someone who ostensibly appears harmless (or otherwise absent) makes the reader question who is the true dangerous obsessive. McEwan develops this further through multiple perspectives, first from Clarissa, Ã¢â¬Ëthe Parry described by Joe, does not existÃ¢â¬â¢ and then from Inspector Linley (whose Ã¢â¬Ëglobular faceÃ¢â¬â¢ has echoes of the balloon) Ã¢â¬Ëas StalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s go heÃ¢â¬â¢s a pussycatÃ¢â¬â¢ to cast doubt upon Jo eÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive assertions. Essentially, JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession forces him to reciprocate Jeds attention which, in turn, fuels the obsession Jed feels.In contrast, CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession causes Miranda to be driven further away from him. Fowles uses MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with GP (the antithesis of Clegg) to add to the narrative richness of the text and interestingly we can see the progression of her thought process up to the epiphany, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ll marry him.Ã¢â¬â¢ The contrast of normal love (a form of healthy obsession) and CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s possessive and repressed sexual feelings are juxtaposed by Fowles. Interestingly, the polarity established through the juxtaposition of these two extremes show CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢ for what it truly is. MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s captivity and love for GP also lead her towards a more understandable obsession: escape. Her willingness to do Ã¢â¬ËanythingÃ¢â¬â¢ to achieve freedom, Ã¢â¬Ëshe did some things which I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t sayÃ¢â¬â¢ reflects upon the zeitgeist of sexual liberation synonymous with the 60s but also contrasts with CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s sexually repressed emasculation. From a structural perspective, MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual advances break the equilibrium of obsessions between the two characters. She rejects CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive behaviour and seeks to act positively against it. However instead, her actions highlight his sexual ineptitude and drive them Ã¢â¬Ëfurther apart than everÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly, McEwan marks his protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s purging of obsession through the somewhat crude and visceral metaphor of excretion. Unlike MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s epiphany of love forcing her to take positive action, JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s is one set against a realisation that humans are detached from the Ã¢â¬Ëgrand cyclesÃ¢â¬â¢ of nature and human existence is insignificant compared with every other organism and process upon which it depends. This reflection, essentially from McEwan, highlights how solipsistic and ego-centric obsessive behaviour truly is and leads to Joe buying a gun, thus breaking obsession between them.Structurally, these events also cause an imbalance leading to the inevitable climax of obsession. In The Collector, this is shown by CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, Ã¢â¬ËI had enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦I went and pulled the bed clothes off herÃ¢â¬â¢ revealing his true obsessive behaviour. MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier attempts to fulfil CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual obsession are used to justify his subsequent treatment of her, Ã¢â¬ËAll I did later was because of that night.Ã¢â¬â¢ MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual demise and Clegg choosing his next target, Ã¢â¬ËMarianÃ¢â¬â¢ reveals his specific obsession for Miranda is destroyed but his obsessive personality remains. In Enduring Love, the obsessive love also (somewhat unsurprisingly) endures and is expressed in the appendix, Ã¢â¬ËP writes daily to RÃ¢â¬â¢. Interestingly, despite the climactic confrontations, both authors ensure that the abnormal obsessive behaviour endures.Set against these principal obsessions is a rich tapestry of secondary obsessions shown in the various sub-plots and extensive allusions to Shakespeare. The faint parallel of the Tempest is used ironically by Fowles and is shown in CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s delusion in re-naming himself Ã¢â¬ËFerdinandÃ¢â¬â¢ reflecting his idealistic view of the obsession. However, this is subverted by Miranda who sees through his faÃ §ade and aptly calls him Ã¢â¬ËCalibanÃ¢â¬â¢ instead, creating a parallel of CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s delusion of who he wants to be, against who he really is. The fact that Caliban famously attempts to rape Miranda in Ã¢â¬Ëthe TempestÃ¢â¬â¢ also foreshadows CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s own sexual obsession. Interestingly, the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s parallel to the Tempest is not fully borne out by the book. Miranda is not the idealistic and submissive woman appearances suggest, but strong, independent and drawn to someone who shares her obsessions: GP. Ironic ally, he is a Caliban of sorts in his vulgarity and hedonism. Similarly, in Enduring Love, McEwan alludes to Othello in JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s suspicion that Clarissa is having an affair with Ã¢â¬ËSome hot little bearded fuck-goatÃ¢â¬â¢ though the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s Iago is, unusually, JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive and irrational mindset. Jean LoganÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s fidelity is a further example of every obsession emanating from the balloon and GPÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with living as a Ã¢â¬ËtruthfulÃ¢â¬â¢ artist (shown by his manifesto) creates a rich textural backdrop of obsessive behaviour.In a way, every character is identifiable by the obsessive stereotype which they maintain. ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in John Keats represents an artistic obsession in Enduring Love through the manner in which she draws inference from his letters. Yet ironically, when it comes to the letters of Jed she is unable to see his potential danger. Similarly, JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s character is the ep itome of science within the novel and this is shown in his scientific tangents Ã¢â¬ËElkmanÃ¢â¬â¢s celebrated cross cultural studyÃ¢â¬â¢ but also the way he recounts every detail of the balloon incident. As such, one would expect him to maintain the same cold rational logic in the face of JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession, though he quickly becomes paranoid. In this way, we can see the manner in which McEwan creates three dimensional characters by subverting stereotypes through obsession. Similarly, Fowles presents Clegg, ostensibly, as a man of science yet this guise is subverted through CleggÃ¢â¬â¢s justification of his obsessive behaviour. For him, the capture of butterflies is, in fact, an obsessive and empowering pursuit not a scientific one. This is reinforced in the language spoken of his new target at the end, Ã¢â¬Ëfor the interestÃ¢â¬ ¦.and to compareÃ¢â¬â¢ where the guise of a Ã¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢ experiment somehow justifies kidnap. Therefore, whilst in Enduring Lov e, McEwan presents the opposition of Art and Science as part of the Ã¢â¬ËequilibriumÃ¢â¬â¢ between Clarissa and Joe, Fowles shows that love can never foster in an abnormal obsessive and pseudo-scientific context. This though, is only truly realised when the authors introduce the third protagonist, Jed and GP, and their obsessions (religion and art) alter the balance of obsession within the novels.This three way structure is alluded to in JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s epiphany where he discusses the river Ã¢â¬Ëtwo atoms of hydrogen, one oxygen bound together by a mysterious forceÃ¢â¬â¢ which parallels the obsessive network between Jed, Joe and Clarissa. McEwan places this petty human struggle of obsession in the context of Ã¢â¬Ëbillions, trillions, of themÃ¢â¬â¢, suggesting the vast nature of obsession. Despite the continuation of his scientific thinking, Joe is able to disengage with his over-rationalising mind and play with the children. Furthermore, the co-operative attitude between hi m and them as they face Ã¢â¬Ëthe slow brown expanse of waterÃ¢â¬â¢ is one fatally Ã¢â¬ËabsentÃ¢â¬â¢ from the initial balloon incident and also Joe and ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier attempts to resolve obsession within the novel.Similarly, Jed watching the Ã¢â¬ËsunÃ¢â¬â¢ coming up and turning the trees Ã¢â¬ËblackÃ¢â¬â¢ strongly recalls the rising balloon suggesting the cyclical and eternal nature of obsession. JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession, like the sun and the balloon, is one destined to continue and transcends everything. He feels the sunlight is the enduring love of God and Joe, who as a confessional figure has almost been elevated to the status of such a deity. Interestingly this creates a counterpoint with The Collector. MirandaÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the discovery of her diary, prove to Clegg that she was not the idealised woman he thought her to be. The loss of her dignity, her burial and his subsequent disregard, relegate her to the status of previous lesser obsessions provi ng that, obsessive love is not always the love which endures. Bibliography1.Fowles, John; The Collector, Vintage Classics, London, 19632.McEwan, Ian; Enduring Love, Vintage, London, 1997
Monday, May 18, 2020
The story of the fall of mankind, explored by John Milton in his epic Paradise Lost, has a way of defining the roles of solitude through its characters, and through those definitions the effects solitude has overall. The epic explores how the good and bad of what happens when one is left alone in their thought, and deep into it, a question is asked by a main character, Ã¢â¬Å"who can enjoy alone, or all enjoying, what contentment find?Ã¢â¬ (Book 8. Line 365-66). The way alone is defined is Ã¢â¬Å"having no one else present, on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ownÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"taking or acting on its ownÃ¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"no one or nothing else besides, exclusive of all other people or thingsÃ¢â¬ . All three definitions will be explored, because in ways each definition applies to more than one character, and some characters are defined by more than one definition of alone. The way solitude is presented in Paradise Lost is that the time spent in solitude distances the characters from each other, a nd allows for both good and evil to come from their time spent alone. The main characters define solitude in their own way, some even use more definitions than others, and they share definitions among each other. Starting with God who is never alone, although God experiences solitude in the sense that God is one of a kind, which was an early sentiment shared with Adam before Eve was created. Satan in solitude allows for him to concoct schemes to ruin GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plans. Adam begins alone, and he does not like it, going as far as to fall along Eve because ofShow MoreRelatedLord Of The Flies, By John Milton Essay1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile reading the epic, Paradise Lost, by John Milton, something came to my mind: Lord of the Flies. There were similarities between these two readings, almost like Lord of the Flies is a biblical allegory to Paradise Lost. 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Saturday, May 16, 2020
Today, many countries are involved. We cannot get rid of economic if we want to talk about development. The term economics can be defined as the science of how people and societies deal with their limited resources to satisfy their unlimited wants (Miller, 2012). The development of a country is based on many characteristics, such as the average income per capita, level of education, the death rate every year, the population health, and many more, but the most important characteristic is the economic activity of a country, therefore it should be promoted over any type of characteristics. Fiscal policy is a very important part of the economic. Its foundation were laid after the great depression of 1929. Fiscal policy can be defined as actionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In case of recession, the government can lower the tax rate in order to boost the economy growth. Expansionary and contractionary are the two basic type of fiscal policy. The term expansionary is used when there is a recession, which is a period during which industrial activity are less. During this period, the aggregation demand is reduced than what it is supposed to be in a full employment. In this situation, the government will have to augment the aggregation demand by increasing their spending. The government can also reduce the rate of taxes, and this will have an impact on the aggregation demand curve to shift to the right, which will allow consumers to have more money to buy goods and invest. The term contractionary on the other hand is used when there is inflation. During this period, the industrial activity is getting out of control. The GDP per is greater than full employment (Miller, 2012). In this situation, the government will have to decrease the aggregation demand by reducing their spending. They can also chose to increase the rate of taxes, which will slow the gr owth, because the consumers will not enough money to buy goods and invest. The type of fiscal policy that is being used in both the past and present day is expansionary fiscal policy. In this type of fiscal policy, taxes rate are reduced and the government spending increase. For example, in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
As a child, I grew up playing softball and that s it. My mom played softball, my cousins played softball. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just all I knew. When I reached the seventh grade at Gardner Dickinson (my elementary and middle school), my friends all played soccer and I reluctantly joined as well. Each year I had my ups and downs with soccer, but it grew to be a part of who I am and has taught me a lot of things. For example, to try new things, to work hard, to never give up, and to step up and be a leader. Mrs. Cronin was one of my favorite teachers and my first soccer coach. She was awesome. She really needed players for the team, so my friends and she ended up convincing me to play. I didn t know a thing about soccer. I didn t know what positions wereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The next big milestone in soccer for me was when I was a freshman in high school. I went to Troy High and didn t think I was good enough to play high school soccer. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for my best friendÃ¢â¬â¢s dad, I really wouldn t have played. He told me that I would regret not playing and that I had a lot of potential. I decided to try out with my three best friends and we all ran and did exhausting fitness exercises for weeks during tryouts. First, weÃ¢â¬â¢d have to do five laps around the track. In the beginning of the season, those five laps are a killer. By the end of the second one, I am usually out of breath. After that, weÃ¢â¬â¢d get into groups and do stations, like jumping over bars or do ing sit-ups and push-ups, basically anything to get us into shape. The third part of practice was sprinting. I like sprints because I am way better at running faster for one-hundred yards, than doing a long distance run. The next part of tryouts were the best, all the girls would get put into two teams and weÃ¢â¬â¢d just scrimmage so he could see our real soccer skills. Coach Haviland, who was the varsity coach, decided teams after the tough two weeks. He said I had a little maturing to do on the field and that I will be on varsity in no time. I was shocked! I didn t even think he was considering me. I had a lot of fun with the Junior Varsity team and made lots of friends. ByShow MoreRelatedSoftball Paper1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe History of Softball PHEC 202 Table of Contents 1. History of Softball 2. How to play Softball 3. Equipment needed to play a game. 4. Diagram of a Softball field 5. Bibliography Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Softball is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite pastimes. Softball is now a very popular game that originated in Chicago, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t become popular over night. The game is said the beRead MoreAre you motivated? Motivated Motivated Sir899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJROTC. Ã¢â¬Å"I have tried so many times to do my left and right faces, but I never can them right; I give up.Ã¢â¬ Come on Cadet Johnson you can do it, cheered his squad, you can do it! Woo-rah! The squad cheered and screamed. JROTC is a high school military program that uses encouragement and community to raise young leaders. Sometimes when you are trying to do something and you canÃ¢â¬â¢t and you just want to give up, a little support of some sort will go a long way. That support helps you to succeed, at what youRead MoreDefinition Of Friendship Example Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfriendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and makeRead MoreThe Paradox Of Finding Success Through Failure Essay1852 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdown is a major part of growing up; and it is sadly something that sticks with us for the rest of our lives. Once we can be self aware of our setbacks, we will be able to tackle these obstacles to help us move in a more successful direction. Athletes encounter failure every time they step out onto the court or field; but it is how they cope with that failure that makes them successful. In my life, I have experienced failure a countless amount of times. Growing up playing competitive sports thereRead MoreThe Ged Language Arts, Writing Test4023 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesWhile viewing the video, fill in the blank with the correct word. Answers are on page 13. 1. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete ___________. 2. A good sentence has to be __________, __________ and have a theme the same way an essay does. 3. The two components of a sentence are ______________ and ______________. 4. Good writing begins with ___________ and thoughtful ______________. Points to Remember: Ã¢â¬ ¢ You can easily follow a correct sentence from beginning to end. Ã¢â¬ ¢ ARead More Working Women and Family Lifestyles Essay4536 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesLifestyles The issues and concerns of this course are ones with which I am able to identify. Having been married for eight years, a working women and mother qualifies me to give much insight to each of the components listed in this course. My essay will address the following: #61623; Past and present status of women in the work place #61623; Balancing career and family #61623; Career Choices #61623; The future of the family In addition, I will expand on the implications of singleRead MoreChapter 6 Ã¢â¬â Analyzing Business Markets23838 Words Ã |Ã 96 Pages(moderate) pp. 104Ã¢â¬â105 11. One key thing to keep in mind when marketing across cultural boundaries is that all people are NOT basically alike. True (moderate) p. 107 12. A secretary who prevents salespersons from contacting users or deciders is playing a gatekeeper role. True (easy) p. 107 13. Interpersonal factors have almost no influence in business purchasing decisions. False (moderate) p. 107 14. The business buying process is influenced by environmental, organizational, and individualRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages......................................................................................... 176 Re-defining the Issue ..................................................................................................................... 182 Covering Up the Reasons That Favor Your Opponent ................................................................ 184 Review of Major Points ..................................................................................................................... 185 Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesMann Gulch Disaster 210 Creativity at Apple 212 SKILL PRACTICE 214 Exercises for Applying Conceptual Blockbusting 214 Individual AssignmentÃ¢â¬âAnalytical Problem Solving (10 minutes) 214 Team AssignmentÃ¢â¬âCreative Problem Solving (20 minutes) 215 Moving Up in the Rankings 216 Keith Dunn and McGuffeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant 217 Creative Problem-Solving Practice 220 SKILL APPLICATION 222 Activities for Solving Problems Creatively 222 Suggested Assignments 222 Application Plan and Evaluation 222 viii CONTENTS SCORINGRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 Pagessubcontractors, project team members, senior management, functional managers, and customers that affect project success? What factors contribute to the development of a high-performance project team? What project management system can be set Preface ix up to gain some measure of control? How do managers prepare for a new international project in a foreign culture? How does one pursue a career in project management? Project managers must deal with all these concerns to be effective. All of these issues
Picture this: Your freezer breaks down. The temperature inside the freezer rises. The ice cubes start to melt and turn into liquid. The freezer starts to flood because of all the liquid from the ice cubes. Now, imagine that your freezer is the Earth. What your freezer has just experienced is similar to what happens to the Earth during global warming. Those who believe in global warming warn that it causes a significant rise in temperature in the Earths atmosphere and oceans, but after doing much research on the topic, I have discovered that the threat of global warming is a bogus one. If the Earths atmosphere was truly rising in temperature, we would see a significant rise in ice sheets melting, just like the ice cubes melted, butÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, a 0.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature, according to many scientists, is not a significant amount over a hundred year time span. So there is absolutely no reason to panic. Therefore, because scientists exagge rate the rise in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature, the world must not be getting warmer. Lastly, mostly all who say global warming is occurring say humans cause global warming, but they are exaggerating. Global warming believers think that carbon dioxide is a major contributor to the rise in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature. Those scientists say that human activities put most of the carbon dioxide in the air. In fact, only three percent of all the carbon dioxide in the air is generated by humans. If global warming is happening, humans definitely are not a significant cause. Nearly 18,000 scientists signed a petition saying there is completely no evidence that man is causing global warming. Because humans do not contribute a major amount of carbon dioxide in the air, humans cannot be responsible for the occurrence of global warming. To conclude, global warming is a myth because of several reasons. First, if the Earth was getting warmer, ice sheets would be melting, but they are not melting. Next, the temperature on Earth has barely gone up in 100 years. And, lastly, those who say global warming is a fact say that humansShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming Is A Myth860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEarth. People continue to pollute the Earth with cars, trash, and waste. There are those who believe that Global Warming is a myth, while others know Global warming exists but don t care. According to U.S. EPA Global Climate Change conducted a study that the temperature increase is causing Greenhouse gases to increase around the world. All of these actions lead to one conclusion: Global Warming, the steady rise in the temperature of the earth s atmosphere, is causing problems all around the worldRead MoreGlobal Warming Is a Myth2326 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Edmund Contoski, Global Warming, Global Myth,Ã Liberty, vol. 22, September 2008. Ã © Copyright 2008, Liberty Foundation. Reproduced by permission. In the last 1.6 million years there have been 63 alternations between warm and cold climates, and no indication that any of them were caused by changes in carbon dioxide levels. Edmund Contoski is a retired environmental consultant who now serves as a columnist for FORCES International Liberty News Network, an organization that advocates individualRead MoreThe Global Warming Myth Essay772 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescatastrophic warming trend caused by a runaway Greenhouse Effect, the warming effect caused by certain gases (of which carbon dioxide is the most mentioned) which trap heat in the atmosphere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always seemed a little fishy to me, though. The news would have us panic and hide in a storm cellar and stop breathing because we exhale carbon dioxide (CO2), but is that necessary? Is CO2 even really that bad? In this paper, I will first discuss the purported reasons behind Ã¢â¬Å"Anthropogenic Global WarmingÃ¢â¬ (AGW)Ã¢â¬âwarmingRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change Myths950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescleared a lot of things up for me was reading and learning about Global Warming and climate change myths. One of the myths on the list that stood out to me was, Ã¢â¬Å"They changed the name from Ã¢â¬ËGlobal WarmingÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËClimate ChangeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ (Global Warming Climate Change Myths, 2016). According to the scientists, both terms actually mean two different things, and have both been used for decades, proving that myth to be false. Another big myth that seems to occupy the minds of a very large part of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Myth, And At The Recent Summit1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDespite scientific evidence that the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperatures have risen by 0.8 degrees Celsius in the last century, many still believe that Global Warming is a myth, and at the recent summit in Copenhagen, world leaders could not agree on a solution. Does a solution require a united approach? Discuss. To say that a united approach to global warming is not required is just ridiculous. It is clear we are leaving a much greater carbon and greenhouse footprint on planet Earth than we should be. This essayRead MoreGlobal Warming Myth or Reality2034 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesRecently, global warming has become a big issue in the environmentally conscious society. It is often the topic of fiery debate amongst global politicians and is regularly featured in the tabloids. There are many arguments to prove the existence of global warming, but there are also many theories to disprove the existence. Confusion is caused through the ongoing debate of Ã¢â¬Å" Is earth going through a normal cycle?, Is earth going through Global warming ? or Is earth going through a Cold age?Ã¢â¬ . ThereRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4031 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreResearch Paper on Climate Change: the Myth of Global Warming4045 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesResearch Paper on Climate Change: The Myth of Global Warming DEDICATION This Research Paper is lovingly dedicated to our respective parents who have been our constant source of inspiration. They have given us the drive and discipline to tackle any task with enthusiasm and determination. Without their love and support this project would not have been made possible. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to acknowledge the contributions of the following group and individuals to the developmentRead MoreGlobal Warming - Truth or Myth: Two Sides to Every Story Essay2815 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesGlobal WarmingÃ¢â¬âTruth or Myth: Two Sides to Every Story Summer 2010 Part I (Thesis): Global Warming: A Natural Occurrence There are always two sides to every story and every different point of view has a right to be heard. When it comes to the discussion of global warmingÃ¢â¬âa gradual increase in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface temperatureÃ¢â¬âthere are two very distinct and opposing points of view. The world seems to be split between global warming being caused by humans and it being a naturalRead MoreGo To This Website, Which Is Hosted By Skeptical Science.1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescovers many of the myths about climate change. Ã¢â¬ ¢ List two of the myths that you found most interesting. Ã¢â¬ ¢Outline what each myth is, and what the right answer to that question or item is. Has your view on climate change evolved since before taking this course? Why or why not? Choose one the Review Questions from this weekÃ¢â¬â¢s reading and answer it in full. Please tell me how the course is going for you so far? Is it hard, Ã¢â¬Å"just rightÃ¢â¬ , or easy? 1. This link covers many of the myths about climate change
Question: Discuss about theEmployee Engagement for Environment, Praise and Support. Answer: Introduction: In the contemporary scenario noteworthy changes have been noticed in business including stiff competition as well as other business conditions. These issues have driven the business organisations to make significant changes. The idea of employee engagement is rather new. It is a common notion that majority of the employees of an organisation work for the pay which they are being provided. Thinking in such a manner, cannot be deemed correct as it is basically outdated and faulty. Several factors affect the engagement of employees including advancement, autonomy, civilized treatment, commitment towards employer, environment, praise, support, the feeling of working of an organisation, the feeling of working in a reliable organisation, considerations of being challenged and so on. Employee engagement is defined as an outcome of the way in which employees perceive their work, organisational leadership, the rewards and recognition received by them, communication and ethos of the organisation. It is also personified by the passion or energy which the employees have to give to their organisation in order to serve their customers suitably. It can also be explained as the extent to which the employees thrive at work, their degree of commitment to their employer and the level of their motivation to do their best for their own as well as their organisational benefit. Background: According to the employers the business world today is in dire need of much more competitive as well as productive workforce. This is to ensure the fact that the organisation stays ahead in terms of competition. This has led to the realisation among the employers that this goal can be achieved in case the focus is shifted on the employee engagement. It is not unknown that individuals devote more than their lifetimes one-third and around half of their entire day at work, thus indicating that work is the main part of an individuals being. Hence work is the best place to engage and inspire them in reaching their goals and also give meanings. History: Much before the term employee engagement existed, in the early 1990s, it was all about HR or personnel emphasis on the employee satisfaction. This disconnected view, was responsible for alienation of the employees support for the brand. This was also responsible for severing the connection which a potentially engaged employee could possess with the company. In the 2000s, the brands started to move closely for analysis of the relationships which they possess as a brand with their employees. It also includes the reduction of the effects of the brand and their marketing tactics. The increasing competitiveness was responsible for the company analysis of the factors responsible for making it successful. The companies also collect evidence on the employee engagement with organisational benefits of performance, profits, safeguarding and so on. The best levels of employee engagement are also ascertained in order to best utilize the marketing efforts (Shuck Herd, 2012). Arguments for and against: Employee expectation is discussed in many organisations at the time of recruitment in order to retain the employees to the organisation. In case this is done, future problems are not encountered by the organisation related to the employee inspiration towards this organisation. Employee engagement can be a severe problem in situations where employers do not enquire about the preferences of the employees and their vision with the organisation (Albrecht et al., 2015). There are arguments against employee engagement as well. Compensation being linked to employee engagement is in very rare cases. In cases when it is linked to the employees merit pay, bonus, salary, stock options and so on, then unnecessary problems are caused. It has also been argued that employee engagement is useless after four to five years. In certain cases it is said that employee engagement can be gamed as well. That is supposed to mean that the surveys can be inaccurate and this can lead to problems of the workplace. So employee engagement need not be done according to such theories (Anitha, 2014). Applicability: Employee engagement is applicable in organisations which indulge in intense competition and therefore always strive to be on the top. Therefore the levels of engagement need to be ensured such that the organisations can beat their competitors. In these organisations the proper care should be given to ensure that the employees have proper amount of motivation for the job (Wang Hsieh, 2013). Impact: Employee engagement assists the organisation in its growth as it motivates the employees in addition to providing them with incentives to work for the organisation (Shields et al., 2015). In case when employees understand the need in the company, there rises a tendency to work harder and in this situation the employee engagement comes. This situation leads to the recognition of their hard work and also leads to them receiving many rewards (Mone London, 2014). The impact of employee engagement is very well understood by the top organisations of the world. These companies realise that employee engagement is nothing but a force which drives the outcomes related to performance. In the most successful organisations, the principle of engagement is more than just an initiative of human resources. It is a strategic foundation for the ways and methodologies of doing business (Jose Mampilly, 2012). Examples: There are several ways to keep employees engaged in organisations. The old-fashioned suggestion boxes are bound to involve employees throughout the company. The boxes are brightly coloured to get the attention of the employees. The suggestions of the employees from the previous week will be read in the following week. This particular program encourages the employee involvement and attention to the information in the newsletter which further builds a mentality of working together as a team. Safety communities are also there which helps in increasing the importance and improving the productivity. The implementation of the safety communities at the business can assist the business and should also serve a one year term. There should be places for monthly safety meetings and members of management can also make safety suggestions (Dalal et al., 2012). Ideas campaign also helps in the involvement of the employees. The employees often come up with new ideas in order to help the business run smoothly. The engagement of the employees is ensured and increased as they have to make sure that their ideas are implemented properly. The picking program also helps employees in choosing the people they want to work with. There are employment programs which allow employees to choose the new people they want to work with. In such situations employee engagement is enhanced as their suggestions are given proper importance. Analysis of HR contributions: HR contributes to the employee engagement of an organisation on a significant level. Thus HR has several factors to consider. After hiring employees, HR has to ensure that the employees remain on board and also safeguard the culture of the organisation. They have to ensure that there is a continuous communication of the organisational values. This is valuable for the stakeholders and also for maintaining the feeling of belonging of the employees. The outstanding performance of the individuals also needs to be recognised as also the team performances. The performances should be rated, the regular performance related insights also need to be shared. The HR should make the key organisational metrics visible for motivational and transparency purposes. A culture of praise or recognition needs to be built for driving engagement as well as commitment. In the ideal scenario, the employees get praise from colleagues as well apart from the managers (Cole et al., 2012). The hiring procedure should be conducted by the HR based on the cultural fit of the organisation and also between the employees and the organisational culture. The prospective employees for an organisation need to be a cultural fit (Hewitt, 2012). Conclusion: The importance of engagement of employees is continuously increasing in different parts of the world. The world is ever altering and majority of markets are open due to globalisation. The nature of employers become more demanding day by day and hence the work life becomes more and more stressful. Organisations face tough competition and hence they need to be innovative. The employees capabilities need to be utilized by them in order to stay on top of their game and perform better overall. Thus employee participation and engagement is a perfect solution for both the employers as well as the employees. Human resource management needs to be considered as a strategic function of a particular organisation. It facilitates in building a competitive edge for any particular organisation by managing and understanding its employees in a positive way. There should be an appropriate style of leading from the front as also the establishment of a two-way communications with employees. This is bound to lead to the creation of an open as well as honest environment where employees feel valued as well as listened to and be involved in decision-making. It is more probable that involved employees feel proud of their organisation and also love to work for them. They also are more likely to believe in and live by the organisational values. References: Albrecht, S. L., Bakker, A. B., Gruman, J. A., Macey, W. H., Saks, A. M. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach.Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance,2(1), 7-35. Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance.International journal of productivity and performance management. Cole, M. S., Walter, F., Bedeian, A. G., OBoyle, E. H. (2012). Job burnout and employee engagement: A meta-analytic examination of construct proliferation.Journal of management,38(5), 1550-1581. Dalal, R. S., Baysinger, M., Brummel, B. J., LeBreton, J. M. (2012). The relative importance of employee engagement, other job attitudes, and trait affect as predictors of job performance.Journal of Applied Social Psychology,42(S1). Hewitt, A. (2012). 2012 Trends in global employee Engagement.Aon Hewitt Corp, 18. Jose, G., Mampilly, S. R. (2012). Satisfaction with HR practices and employee engagement: A social exchange perspective.Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies,4(7), 423-430. Mone, E. M., London, M. (2014).Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers. Routledge. Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., ... Plimmer, G. (2015).Managing Employee Performance Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press. Shuck, B., Herd, A. M. (2012). Employee engagement and leadership: Exploring the convergence of two frameworks and implications for leadership development in HRD.Human resource development review,11(2), 156-181. Wang, D. S., Hsieh, C. C. (2013). The effect of authentic leadership on employee trust and employee engagement.Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal,41(4), 613-624.